• 14 “Day of preparation for the Passover”
    • –> what about the last supper?  Wasn’t that Passover?  (Yes: John 13:1)
      • Leviticus 23:4-8
      • Both sometimes called “Passover” or Passover week.


  • 14 It was about the 6th hour?
  • Contradiction?
    • John = 19:14 = Trial at 6th hour
    • Mark 15:25 = Crucified at the 3rd hour
      • Jewish day began at Sunrise – 3rd hour = ~9am
      • The Roman “Civil Day” began at midnight; 6th hour = ~6am
        • John writing to non-Jews (explains things) = used the Roman civil “clock”
        • To this day Antemeridian (am) and Postmeridian (pm)


  • Pilate being salty
    • Matthew 27:18 – he knew the score
    • ch18 Early in the morning
    • ch18 Bad opening: 18:29-31
    • ch18:38-40 -“Give us Barabbas”
      • Luke 23:18-19 Barabbas was an insurrectionist!
      • They wanted someone guilty of Insurrection instead of the man Pilate proclaimed innocent!
    • 14 “Behold your king”
    • 15 Should I crucify your king?
    • 19 “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.”
    • 22 “I have written what I have written”


  • Crucify Him
    • Who asked?
      • Matthew and Mark = the crowd(s)
      • John 19:6 ” chief priests and the officers
      • John 19:15 – Them = same crowd
      • Luke to the rescue: Luke 23:13 has: ” 13 Pilate summoned the chief priests and the rulers and the people,”
        • What people at 6am?


  • 15 “No King but Caesar
    • The Chief priests said this! 
    • I found 43 Jewish prayers with the preamble of “Blessed are you O God, our Lord, King of the Universe” – The Chosen
      • who has sanctified us with his Commandments, and has commanded us about the washing of hands
      • Who brings forth bread from the earth.
      • Who creates varieties of nourishment. (non-bread grains)
      • Who creates the fruit of the vine.
      • Who creates the fruit of the tree.
      • Who creates the fruit of the ground.
      • through Whose word everything comes into being. (anything not fitting into the other categories)
      • Who brings sleep to my eyes, and slumber to my eyelids.


18 Why two others?  Why was Jesus in the Middle?


19-22 Why that inscription?  Why did he write it in all three major languages?  Was Pilate goading the Pharisees?


23 seamless tunic = fulfillment of Psalm 22


25 why “his mother’s sister”?  (Salome, John’s mother)


30 He “handed over” His Spirit (authority to lay down HIs life and take it back up again.)


35 Eyewitness account







  • Eph 2:1 death = nekros = dead (No special Greek here; other greek word “Thantos” = Marvel’s “Thanos”)
  • Gen 2:17
    • Imperfective form = incomplete/in-process action
      • Often future tense, but NOT always
    • Three ways to take it:
      • Future tense = spiritual death = separated from God
      • Imperfective = physical death = started the process of dying (which happened)
      • Both
  • Wages of sin = death
    • Romans 6:23


In which you once walked

  • Walked = lifestyle
  • “Once walked”  NASB95: “Formerly walked”
    • This is past tense
    • God expects us to behave, not to earn anything, but because we were “redeemed” = bought with a price 1 Cor 6:19-20


The age and this world 

  • It was worse that modern day America
    • Rampant Feminism
      • In the second century (B.C.) confarreatio disappeared… Free marriages became usual, made and broken by mutual consent. Indeed the will of one party only was sufficient for a divorce, the intention to dissolve being communicated either by word of mouth or by messenger. There was no ceremony, no registration, no formality. Women were free from any trace of marital authority; they could hold property and could contract in their own name.
      • Cato the Censor (died 149 BC) “All other men rule over women; but we Romans, who rule all men, are ruled by our women.
    • Homosexuality
      • Romans 1:27
    • Transgenderism
      • 1 cor 6:9 (effeminate = my verse note)
        • ESV perversion
    • Prostitution
      • One historian (can’t remember who) said that Roman had as many brothels as England has pubs.  (restaurants who serve alcohol)


Prince of the power of the air = Eph 6:11-12 

  • Not just “Satan” it’s a whole host of spiritual beings
    • Notice, all plural
    • Don’t credit “Satan” with everything = that’s giving him WAY too much credit
      • “the enemy”


among whom we all once lived in the cravings of our flesh,

  • Again “once lived” = Formerly/previously
  • “lusts of the flesh” = bad translation
  • Greek words for “desire
    • theléma/theló = weaker // desire/wish/want = most commom //used in this verse “desires”
    • epithumia = strong desire =
      • properly, passion built on strong feelings (urges). These can be positive or negative
      • Thayer’s: craving, longing
        • I’ll add “yearning”
      • Can be positive or negative:
        • Luke 22:15 = “with longing I longed”
        • Romans 7:7 = Coveting
      • ANY strong desire, not just sexual.
    • Boulomai = strong desire = intend / determined / resolved
      • boúlomai – to plan with full resolve (determination). See 1012 (boulē). … 1014 /boúlomai (“resolutely plan”) is a strong term that underlines the predetermined (and determined) intention driving the planning (wishing, resolving). In contrast, 2309 (thélō) focuses on the desire (“wishfulness”) behind making an offer
      • Mark 15:15  And Pilate – resolving to do what was acceptable to the crowd – released Barabbas to them.
  • Why mention? =  affects other passages and adds nuance here.
  • Cravings of the flesh = Gal 5:16-21
    • Notice “and things like these”  Not an exhaustive list; there’s more.


doing the desires and thoughts of the flesh.

  • Desires = theléma
  • Thoughts could be “reasonings”
    • Female rationalization hampster (men do it too)
  • Flesh = sinful nature


And we were children of wrath by nature, just like the rest.

  • children of wrath by nature
  • Original sin
    • Great debate: Calvnism vs Armenisim vs Jewish/historical view
      • Pelagian heresy: Adam’s sin had no effect upon his descendants other than a sinful example, man has the ability to stop sinning if he simply chooses to.
        • Romans 5:19 disproves quite handily
      • Calvinism =conceived guilty = based on Psalm 51:5 (notably Augustine with a bad translation “all died in Adam” vs “in/by Adam, all died”)
        • Rebuttal:
          • Job 31:16-18,
          • Song of Solomon 4:1-6
          • Ezekiel 18:20
          • Ezekiel 28:11-12 and 15
      • Arminianism = Adam’s original sin has resulted in the rest of mankind inheriting a corrupt, sinful nature, which causes us to sin in the same way that a cat’s nature causes it to meow—it comes naturally.
        • HOWEVER:  Arminianism rejects God’s sovereignty, so…  they’re 50/50 on this.
      • Jewish concept
        • However, traditional rabbinic understanding of human nature is shaped to a large degree by the presence of two inclinations – the yetzer ha tov (the good inclination) and the yetzer ha ra (the evil inclination)
      • Biology confirms this (partially)
        • Epigentics
          • Controlled experiments in mice have allowed researchers to hone in on this question. A 2013 study found that there was an intergenerational effect of trauma associated with scent. The researchers blew acetophenone – which has the scent of cherry blossom – through the cages of adult male mice, zapping their foot with an electric current at the same time. Over several repetitions, the mice associated the smell of cherry blossom with pain.Shortly afterwards, these males bred with female mice. When their pups smelled the scent of cherry blossom, they became more jumpy and nervous than pups whose fathers hadn’t been conditioned to fear it. To rule out that the pups were somehow learning about the smell from their parents, they were raised by unrelated mice who had never smelt cherry blossom.The grandpups of the traumatised males also showed heightened sensitivity to the scent. Neither of the generations showed a greater sensitivity to smells other than cherry blossom, indicating that the inheritance was specific to that scent.This sensitivity to cherry blossom scent was linked back to epigenetic modifications in their sperm DNA. Chemical markers on their DNA were found on a gene encoding a smell receptor, expressed in the olfactory bulb between the nose and the brain, which is involved in sensing the cherry blossom scent. When the team dissected the pups’ brains they also found there was a greater number of the neurons that detect the cherry blossom scent, compared with control mice.
          • [POWs] returned to society with impaired health, worse job prospects and shorter life expectancy. But the impact of these hardships did not stop with those who experienced it. It also had an effect on the prisoners’ children and grandchildren, which appeared to be passed down the male line of families.While their sons and grandsons had not suffered the hardships of the PoW camps – and if anything were well provided for through their childhoods – they suffered higher rates of mortality than the wider population.…Costa and her colleagues studied the health records of nearly 4,600 children whose fathers had been PoWs, comparing them to just over 15,300 children of veterans of the war who had not been captured.The sons of PoWs had an 11% higher mortality rate than the sons of non-PoW veterans. Other factors such as the father’s socioeconomic status and the son’s job and marital status couldn’t account for the higher mortality rate, the researchers found.


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